SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJOSCIENCE https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience <h2 data-fontsize="18" data-lineheight="27"><strong>SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJOSCIENCE</strong></h2> <p><strong>IJOSCIENCE (International Journal Online of Science<em>)</em> is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes monthly. IJOSCIENCE has been granted ISSN No 2455-0108 in the year 2015.</strong></p> <h3 class="fusion-page-title-bar fusion-page-title-bar-none fusion-page-title-bar-left">Publication Model</h3> <p> </p> <h4><strong>IJOSCIECE is an Open Access journal and we don’t receive any grant by any organization, hence we ask our authors to pay Article Processing Charge (APC). APC covers the expense of the administrative cost, the peer review process, publication processes, online publication, hosting the website, online security (virus attack), etc. An author will be asked to pay the publication fee along with the acceptance letter.</strong></h4> <p>Authors paying fees do not mean that the process would be curtailed short or they can get their publication fast. IJOSCIENCE does not compromise with its quality standards. We do not accept any fee unless a manuscript meets its set benchmarks or standards. This fee is only charged to meet the publication expense requirements. </p> <p>See the <a href="https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience/cfp">Call for Paper</a> webpage for the Article Processing Fee information.</p> <p><strong>Ownership Statement</strong></p> <p>SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJOSCIENCE iis published by <a href="https://smartmovesonline.org/">SMART MOVES</a> publications, Bhopal, M.P., India. <strong>SMART MOVES</strong> (organisation name) is a registered organisation in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Smart Moves is a publishing house that was established in the year 2012. Mr Rajeev Tiwari (name of a person) is the proprietor/owner of Smart Moves. SMART MOVES is a for-profit publishing organisation.</p> <p><strong>About SMART MOVES</strong></p> <p>Please find the link to our publisher website <a href="https://smartmovesonline.org/index.php/sm/index">SMART MOVES</a></p> <p>Smart Moves is publishing research papers in order to enable online platforms to reach the international research fraternity. Smart Moves also publishes books in both formats, ebooks and print mode.</p> <p>We are publishing four open-access online journals Please find details below- </p> <p> 1-<a href="http://ijellh.com/">http://ijellh.com/</a></p> <p>2-<a href="http://ijoscience.com/">http://ijoscience.com/</a></p> <p>3-<a href="http://ijosthe.com/">http://ijosthe.com/</a></p> <p>4-<a href="http://ijohmn.com/">http://ijohmn.com</a></p> SMART MOVES en-US SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJOSCIENCE 2582-4600 <p align="justify">IJOSCIENCE follows an Open Journal Access policy. Authors retain the copyright of the original work and grant the rights of publication to the publisher with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons CC BY License </a>that allows others to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. Authors are permitted to post their work in institutional repositories, social media or other platforms. </p> <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.ast" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.ast" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<span id="by-more-container"></span></p> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <ul id="deed-conditions-no-icons" class="col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="technological_measures_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.ast" data-original-title="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> </div> </div> Overview on the Constructional Dynamics Types of Load on a Flyover https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience/article/view/485 <p><strong>Flyovers or grade separators are bridges built over a traffic intersection to allow people to literally ‘fly over’ the traffic. Flyovers were required on ring roads meeting arterial interchanges, over rivers (“where they are called bridges") or across railway lines. In the past, some flyovers were constructed in different urban locations in India.Thus it is necessary to construct the flyover which is sustainable. Quality and structural design matters a lot, otherwise constructing a flyover is just the waste of money. This paper present the overview of flyover, the constructional procedure of flyover as well as the types of load on the flyover.</strong></p> Abhishek Kundan Dr. Sharad Kumar Soni Copyright (c) 2022 Abhishek Kundan, Dr. Sharad Kumar Soni http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 32 36 10.24113/ijoscience.v8i4.485 Designing UPFC with Controller Driving Dual Converter Topology in a Grid Integrated PV System https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience/article/view/484 <p>Renewable energy source (RES)-based electricity generating plants are expensive and complicated, requiring controls to deal with the energy input's intermittent renewables and fluctuation. If the grid interface of these devices is not monitored and maintained within the norms, it presents a problem of providing electricity to the utilities. Thus researchers have discusses several grid interface and control strategies for RES-based generators. This paper discusses the technique of improving power quality by using UPFC (Unified Power Flow Control) having&nbsp; PI controller.</p> Ashok Kumar Nand Lal Shah Copyright (c) 2022 Ashok Kumar, Nand Lal Shah http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 22 31 10.24113/ijoscience.v8i4.484 Comparative Analysis of Electric Traction System with PI Controller and PSO Optimization Algorithm https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience/article/view/482 <p><strong>Electrical traction refers to a system that uses electrical power for traction, such as railways, trams, trolleys, and other vehicles. The term "track electrification" refers to the type of power source that used power electric locomotive systems. It could be AC, DC, or a hybrid supply. This paper provides the comparative analysis of electric traction system with PI controller and PSO Optimization Algorithm</strong></p> Abhinav Kumar Tiwrai Prof. Vivek Koshta Copyright (c) 2022 Abhinav Kumar Tiwrai, Prof. Vivek Koshta http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 12 21 10.24113/ijoscience.v8i4.482 Analysis of LVDS and HVDS for its Effects at the Loading Points https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience/article/view/481 <p><strong>Power is a crucial component for India's economic development. Advancement of productivity expansion will be contingent on a financially and financially successful electricity industry capable of attracting additional investment. Generating capacity inside the electric power industry are strongly reliant on the off-taker's, transportation, and distributing organizations' reputation. In generally, electromagnetic electricity is generated in power plants that are positioned far from where the users live. It is then distributed to users via a vast transmission and distribution. The modern power generation system is based on Alternating Current (AC). The purpose of this article is to conduct a comparison analysis of the results at load locations in the voltage and low power distribution channels.</strong></p> Anshul Bhanu Tiwari Prof. Priyank Shrivastava Dr. Manju Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Anshul Bhanu Tiwari, Prof. Priyank Shrivastava, Dr. Manju Gupta http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 1 11 10.24113/ijoscience.v8i4.481 Study on Rail Electrification Systems and their Harmonic Distortion Issues https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience/article/view/480 <p>Due to the harmonics insertion from of the asymmetric electric engine, particularly high / elevated / sizable trains, torque ripple and chromatic resonant difficulties have been commonly documented in railway electrification systems (RESs). We investigated the imbalance and switching frequency caused by a neighborhood transmission system, as well as their effects and mitigation policies, in this work. The varying levels of deformation in the supplying program's input characteristics can present a hazard to the propulsion loads. The many</p> Abhinav Kumar Tiwrai Prof. Vivek Koshta Copyright (c) 2022 Abhinav Kumar Tiwrai, Prof. Vivek Koshta http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 37 41 10.24113/ijoscience.v8i3.480 CFD Analysis of Various Design Aspects in Baffle Tube Heat Exchanger https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience/article/view/479 <p><strong>To improve temperature difference, a computer simulation assessment for a rectangular duct with right angle confounds heat exchanger with small displacements and bewilder height was carried out. A total of 10 There were three separate two half Autocad models of rectangular shaped channel with bewilders spacing of 40 milimetre, 80 milimetre, and 120 milimetre&nbsp;and baffle heights of 10 mm, 12.5 milimetre, and 15 milimetre&nbsp;developed. The major goal of this study is to run computer simulations to see how Cu water nanoparticle affect the architecture and thermally hydrodynamic characteristics of a rectangular duct with baffles exchanger. The bottom walls of the canal, as well as the baffles, are regarded isothermal zones, whereas the sidewalls are termed regular zones. This approach employs a second derivative upwind mass and energy equation. The baffle pitch and height have a significant influence on the temperature distribution from the rectangle shaped channel &nbsp;heating element, with a maximal temperature fluctuations of 9.831oC and a maximum heat transfer of 6.571 KW for baffle spacing 40 mm and height 15 mm for rectangle channel without opposite baffles. In comparison to the base design of rectangle shaped channels exchanger, the temperature difference increases nearly 1.5 times as even the width is decreased.</strong></p> Ajeet Kumar Mishra Prof. Shamir Daniel Prof. Amit Kumar Asthana Copyright (c) 2022 Ajeet Kumar Mishra, Prof. Shamir Daniel, Prof. Amit Kumar Asthana http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 24 36 10.24113/ijoscience.v8i3.479 CFD Assessment of Flow Maldistribution in Plate Fin and Tube Heat Exchangers https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience/article/view/478 <p><strong>The primary goal of this work is to use CFD assessment simulating framework is to anticipate the impact of injecting air flowing mal-distribution on heat exchanger architecture and thermal flow characteristics. Using CFD (computational fluid dynamics)&nbsp;simulation-studies, determine the impact of air intake&nbsp;flow unequal distribution or mal-distribution&nbsp;on the complete redesign as well as high - temperature hydraulic performing ability&nbsp;of HEX (heat exchangers). The findings demonstrate that a plate as well as tube&nbsp;fin heating element consisting of&nbsp;an elongated tubular setup slanted&nbsp;by 30 degrees can achieve the highest temperature transmission, having&nbsp;a heat transfer ability of 23.22 percent greater than a (SPHEX)&nbsp;spherical pipe heat exchanger.</strong></p> Anupama Yadav Pankaj Badgaiyan Amit Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Anupama Yadav, Pankaj Badgaiyan, Amit Kumar Singh http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 15 23 10.24113/ijoscience.v8i3.478 A Review on Various Types of Fins Geometries in Plate fin and Tube Heat Exchangers https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience/article/view/477 <p>Fin-and-tube heat exchanging systems&nbsp;are the another very commonly utilised heat exchangers for thermal energy transformation, with implementations in air conditioners, cooling systems, the automotive sector, electrical gadgets, and other areas. The market for more effective refrigeration via smaller heat exchangers has resulted in extensive investigation on the subject. The thermal efficiency exploration methodologies and comprehensive flow and heat transfer analysing outcomes of fin-and-tube HEs are summarised in this review. This study also examined the massive heat transfer boosters, as well as their arrangement and shape. In addition, an overview of both theoretical and empirical research on the effectiveness of HEs is provided</p> Anupama Yadav Pankaj Badgaiyan Amit Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Anupama Yadav, Pankaj Badgaiyan, Amit Kumar Singh http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 45 51 10.24113/ijoscience.v8i2.477 Review on Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Wireless Networks https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience/article/view/476 <p>The demand for bandwidth is expanding in lockstep with the advancement of wireless communication technologies, and as a result, wireless spectrum resources are becoming more limited. The main principle of cognitive radio is dynamic spectrum access, which has been highlighted as a possible solution for spectrum shortage. Spectrum sensing is thought to be a popular solution for spectrum shortage caused by a high number of sensors, especially in Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Nonetheless, the Internet of Things faces significant spectrum sensing problems yet to be addressed. To be used in complex and scalable IoT systems, traditional spectrum sensing methods must be properly adjusted. The purpose of this study is to provide an introduction of spectrum sensing for Internet of Things&nbsp;and its various architectural configurations. We present a comprehensive list of spectrum sensing issues for IoT devices. In the deployment of smart networks, machine learning and deep learning technologies are becoming more popular.</p> Sunil Khoja Anoop Tiwari Copyright (c) 2022 Sunil Khoja, Anoop Tiwari http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 39 44 10.24113/ijoscience.v8i2.476 Review on Heat Exchangers with Different Geometries and Flow Arrangement https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience/article/view/475 <p><strong>A heat exchanger is a device that enables heat from one fluid (liquid or gas) to be transferred to some other fluid (liquid or gas) without the two fluids mixing or coming into direct contact. The various sorts of fluid flows in different types of heat exchanging systems are discussed in this paper.Heat exchangers can be found in a variety of locations, generally working to warm up or cool buildings or to improve the efficiency of engines and machineries. Refrigerators and air conditioners, for example, use heat exchangers in the opposite way that central heating systems do: they remove heat from a chamber or room that isn't needed and pump it away in a fluid to another location that can be dropped out of the way. The refrigerating fluid is completely enclosed within a series of channels, so it never comes into direct contact with the air: it extracts heat energy from the air inside and dumps it in the air outside, but it never mixes with it.</strong></p> Vivek Kumar Gautam Prof. NK Sagar Copyright (c) 2022 Vivek Kumar Gautam, Prof. NK Sagar http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 8 12 10.24113/ijoscience.v8i3.475 Comparative Analysis of Different Designs of Triple Tube Heat Exchangers on the Basis of their Performances https://ijoscience.com/ojsscience/index.php/ojsscience/article/view/474 <p><strong>Cooling, warming, and air-conditioning systems, electric utilities, chemical based&nbsp;processing structures, food industry, automotive vehicle radiators, and waste heat recovery units are all examples of heat exchanger implementations. Heat exchangers in power plants include air preliminary heaters, economizers, evaporators, super-heaters, condensing systems, and cooling towers. Theoretical and simulation fluid dynamics assessments of varying patterns&nbsp;of a concentric TTHEX were conducted in this study with the intent of enhancing thermal efficiency.</strong></p> Vivek Kumar Gautam Prof. NK Sagar Copyright (c) 2022 Vivek Kumar Gautam, Prof. NK Sagar http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 1 7 10.24113/ijoscience.v8i3.474