A Review on Mechanical Design of a Four Wheel Steering System


  • Vipin Singh Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sagar Institute and Research & Technology, Bhopal, M.P, India
  • Sharad Sharma Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technocrats Institute of Technology, Bhopal, M.P, India




Steering System; 4WS; 2WS; Zero steer mode; Production cars;


In standard 2 Wheel Steering System, the rear set of wheels are always directed forward and do not play an active role in controlling the steering. While in 4 Wheel Steering System, the rear wheels do play an active role for steering, which can be guided at high as well as low speeds. Production cars are designed to under steer and rarely do them over steer. If a car could automatically compensate for an under steer/over steer problem, the driver would enjoy nearly neutral steering under varying operating conditions. Also in situations like low speed cornering, vehicle parking and driving in city conditions with heavy traffic in tight spaces, driving would be very difficult due to a sedan’s larger wheelbase and track width. Hence there is a requirement of a mechanism which result in less turning radius. The aim of this paper is to study & analyze an improved driving assistance system which provides four wheel steering mechanism as well as Zero steer mode.


Download data is not yet available.


Zutao Zhang; Xingtian Zhang; Hongye Pan; Waleed Salman; Yagubov Rasim; Xinglong Liu; Chunbai Wang; Yan Yang; Xiaopei Li, “A Novel Steering System for a Space-Saving 4WS4WD Electric Vehicle: Design, Modeling, and Road Tests”, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems , Volume: 18, Issue: 1, Jan. 2017.

Masato Itoh, Kenichiro Nonaka, Kazuma Sekiguchi, “Experimental verification of model predictive tracking and steering control for the vehicle equipped with coaxial steering mechanisms”, System Integration (SII), IEEE, 2016.

A. A. A. Razak; A. H. Abdullah; K. Kamarudin; F. S. A. Saad; S. A. Shukor; H. Mustafa; M. A. A. Bakar, “Mobile robot structure design, modeling and simulation for confined space application”, Robotics and Manufacturing Automation (ROMA), IEEE, 2016.

Reza Oftadeh, Mohammad M. Aref, Reza Ghabcheloo, Jouni Mattila, “Mechatronic Design of a Four Wheel Steering Mobile Robot with Fault-Tolerant Odometry Feedback”, IFAC Proceedings Volumes, Volume 46, Issue 5, 2013.

Alireza Hadi; Mohammad Mehdi Bahmani; Mohammad Javad Davari , “Developing a bio inspired steerable robot actuated by shape memory alloy springs”, International Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ICROM), 2015.

Yuki Hagimori; Masato Ito; Kenichiro Nonaka; Kazuma Sekiguchi, “Model predictive steering control for independent driving and steering vehicles considering coaxial steering mechanism — Implementation to an embedded CPU”, Asian Control Conference (ASCC), 2015.

Lee, A.Y., “Vehicle Stability Augmentation Systems Designs for Four Wheel Steering Vehicles,” ASME Journal of Dynamical Systems, Measurements and Control, Vol. 112, No. 3, pps. 489-495, September 1990.

M. Abe, "Vehicle Dynamics and Control for Improving Handling and Active Safety: From FourWheel-Steering to Direct Yaw Moment Control," in Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part K, Journal of Milti-body Dynamics, vol. 213, no. 4,1999.




How to Cite

Singh, V., & Sharma, S. (2017). A Review on Mechanical Design of a Four Wheel Steering System. SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJOSCIENCE, 3(7), 13–18. https://doi.org/10.24113/ijoscience.v3i7.28